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Practical Nursing (NPN)

NPN 100  (2 credit hours)  
Introduction to Nursing & Health Care System  

Includes a historical overview of current health care including medical economics, ethical and legal parameters, roles, and responsibilities of health care team members with an emphasis on reflective nursing practice. Introduces the four competencies of nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Explores medical terminology, therapeutic communication techniques, concepts of health, health assessment, self-care and basic needs related to activities of daily living across the lifespan. Or Consent of PN Coordinator. Lecture: 2.0 credits (30 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry].
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and NPN 105 and NPN 114 with a grade of "C" or better for each course.
Attributes: Technical
Components: LEC: Lecture
NPN 101  (6 credit hours)  
Nursing Fundamentals  

Provides an overview of the health care system and roles and responsibilities of members of the health care team. Emphasizes the role of the practical nurse in the context of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN), National League of Nursing (NLN) Education Competencies, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs as related to client daily living across the life span. Covers fundamental nursing skills including therapeutic communication techniques, nursing assessment, health promotion, nursing process and care planning, charting nursing informatics, and legal and ethical parameters of health care. Lecture: 3.0 credits (45 contact hour). Lab: 3.0 credits (135 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry].
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and (AHS 115 or CLA 131 or AHS 120 or OST 103) with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Digital Literacy, Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 105  (6 credit hours)  
Development of Care Giver Role  

Introduces and emphasizes application of the nursing process in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs to meet the needs of diverse patients across the life span at the practical nursing level. Establishes the foundational knowledge for competency-based nursing practice by introducing basic nursing concepts, fundamental nursing skills related to health assessment, promotion, maintenance, and illness prevention, and critical thinking as a framework for organizing care delivery. Strengthens the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Or Consent of PN Coordinator. Lecture: 3.0 credits (45 contact hours); Lab/Clinical: 3.0 credits (45:1 ratio/135 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry].
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and NPN 100 and NPN 114 with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Digital Literacy, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 106  (6 credit hours)  
Fundamentals of Nursing Care  

Provides a historical overview of health care system and roles and responsibilities of members of the health care team. Introduces the four competencies of nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Emphasizes application of the nursing process in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs to meet the needs of diverse patients across the life span at the practical nursing level. Establishes the foundational knowledge for competency-based nursing practice by introducing basic nursing concepts, fundamental nursing skills, and critical thinking as a framework for organizing care delivery. Proof of active status on Kentucky Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry or its equivalent. (BIO 135 or BIO 137) and ENG 101 and (AHS 115 or CLA 131) with a grade of "C" or better in each course. Lecture: 4 credit hours (60 contact hours). Lab/Clinical: 2 credit hours (90 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program.
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) with a grade of "C" or better.
Attributes: Digital Literacy, Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 107  (5 credit hours)  
Nursing Pharmacology  

Introduces dosage calculations and medication administration of commonly used medications. Includes an overview of common drugs, drug classifications, and effects administered in the following modes: oral, sublingual, rectal, topical, intradermal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous including IV fluid administration skills. Emphasizes nursing responsibility, accountability, and application of nursing process to drug therapy. Incorporates the four competencies of nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) related to medication administration. Proof of active status on Kentucky Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry or its equivalent. (BIO 135 or BIO 137) and ENG 101 and (AHS 115 or CLA 131) with a grade of "C" or better in each course. Lecture: 3 credits (45 contact hours) Lab/Clinical: 2 credits (90 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to the Practical Nursing program.
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) with a grade of "C" or better.
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 108  (3 credit hours)  
Pharmacology in Nursing  

Introduces dosage calculations and medication administration of commonly used medications. Includes an overview of common drugs, drug classifications, and effects administered in the following modes: oral, sublingual, rectal, topical, intradermal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous including IV fluid administration skills. Emphasizes nursing responsibility, accountability, and application of nursing process to drug therapy. [ENG 101 and MT 110 and (AHS 115 or CLA 131) with a minimum "C" grade.] Lecture: 2.0 credits (30 contact hours). Laboratory: 1.0 credit (45 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry] AND Computer Literacy as defined by KCTCS.
Pre- or co-requisite: BIO 139, if prerequisite, a grade of "C" or greater must be achieved.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 110  (2 credit hours)  
Pharmacology I  

Introduces techniques used to administer medications. Includes dosages, diagnostic studies, related medical therapies, and legal responsibilities. Lecture: 1.0 credit (15 contact hours); Lab/Clinical: 1.0 credit (45:1 ratio/45 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry] AND Digital Literacy as defined by KCTCS.
Pre- or co-requisite: [(BIO 135 or BIO 139), if prerequisite, a grade of "C" or greater must be achieved] OR Consent of PN Coordinator.
Attributes: Technical
Components: LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 111  (3 credit hours)  
Pharmacology  

Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry] AND Computer Literacy as defined by KCTCS. Lecture: 1.0 credit (15 contact hours). Lab/Clinical: 2.0 credits (90 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry] AND Digital Literacy as defined by KCTCS.
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and (AHS 115 or CLA 131 or AHS 120 or OST 103), if prerequisite, a grade of "C" or greater must be achieved.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 112  (4 credit hours)  
Introduction to Pharmacology  

Introduces dosage calculations and medication administration of commonly used medications. Includes an overview of common drugs, drug classifications, and effects administered in the following modes: oral, sublingual, rectal, topical, intradermal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous including IV fluid administration skills. Promotes nursing responsibility, accountability, and application of nursing process to drug therapy. Emphasizes role and responsibilities in administration of medications according to 201 KAR 20:490. Establishes the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Lecture: 2 credits (30 contact hours) Lab/Clinical: 2 credits (90 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry].
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and (AHS 115 or CLA 131 or AHS 120 or OST 103) with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 114  (3 credit hours)  
Principles of Pharmacology I  

Introduces dosage calculations and medication administration basic principles and techniques. Includes techniques of medication administration in the following modes: oral, sublingual, rectal, topical, intradermal, intramuscular, and subcutaneous. Emphasizes nursing principles of responsibility, accountability, and application of nursing process to medication administration. Incorporates the four competencies of nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) related to medication administration. Or Consent of PN Coordinator. Lecture: 2 credits (30 contact hours) Lab/Clinical: 1 credit (45 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to Practical Nursing program AND CPR for Health Care Providers certification to be maintained throughout enrollment in the program AND [(NAA 100 or equivalent) within the past three years OR active status on the Medicaid Nurse Aide Registry].
Pre- or co-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and NPN 100 and NPN 105 with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 115  (6 credit hours)  
Practical Nursing Bridge Course  

Provides overview of the health care system and roles and responsibilities of the health care team. Emphasizes the nursing process in the context of Gordon's Functional Health Patterns and Maslow's hierarchy of needs as related to client daily living across the life span. Covers fundamental nursing skills including therapeutic communication techniques, nursing assessment, and the nursing process. Introduces dosage calculations and administration of medications. Includes an overview of common drugs, drug classifications, and effects of drugs administered in all modes. Emphasizes nursing responsibility, accountability, and the application of the nursing process to drug therapy. Upon successful completion of all components of the course, the student will be admitted to NPN 135 and will have earned advanced standing hours, dependent upon curriculum option. Pre-requisite Or Lecture: 3.0 credit hours (45 contact hours). Laboratory: 3.0 credit hours (135 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Admission to the Practical Nursing Program AND (NAA 115 or equivalent) AND (BIO 135 or BIO 139) AND (ENG 101 or COM 181 or COM 252 or TEC 200) AND (CLA 131 or AHS 120 or OST 103) AND Digital Literacy with a minimum grade of C in each Pre-requisite course.
Co-requisite: (AHS 100 or PSY 223) with a minimum grade of "C".
Attributes: Technical
Components: LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 125  (3 credit hours)  
Mental Health  

Focuses on the application of the core components of nursing practice for patients across the life span experiencing actual or potential alterations in mental health. Explores the role and relationship of the nurse in the multidisciplinary team in various settings and treatment modalities. Applies the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Or Consent of PN coordinator. Pre-requisite Or Pathway 3: NPN 106 and NPN 107 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) with a grade of "C" or better in each course. Lecture: 2.0 credits (30 contact hours). Lab/Clinical: 1.0 credit (45 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Pathway 1: NPN 100 and NPN 105 and NPN 114 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Co-requisite: Pathway 2: NPN 101 and NPN 112 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and (AHS 120 or AHS 115 or OST 103 or CLA 131) with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 130  (3 credit hours)  
Pharmacology II  

Identify common drugs by classification and effects with emphasis on responsibility, accountability, and application of the nursing process to drug therapy. Minimum "C" grade). Lab/Clinical: 1.0 credit (45 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: ((NPN 100 and NPN 105 and NPN 110 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) or Consent of PN Coordinator).
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 135  (6 credit hours)  
Introduction to Health Deviation  

Focuses on the application of the core components of nursing practice across the lifespan in the areas of the perioperative cycle, deviations in the respiratory system and oxygenation, and threats to the body's immune system. Strengthens the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Or Consent of PN Coordinator. Pathway 2: NPN 101 and NPN 112 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and (AHS 120 or AHS 115 or CLA 131 or OST 103) with grade of "C" or better in each course. Lecture: 3.0 credits (45 contact hours); Lab/Clinical: 3.0 credit (45:1 ratio/135 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Pathway 1: NPN 100 and NPN 105 and NPN 114 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) with grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 140  (3 credit hours)  
Nursing Care I  

Applies nursing process to selected child/adult clients experiencing common health deviations related to interferences with activities of daily living and/ or interruption of body structure and function related to surgical interference. Prerequisite: ((NPN 106 and NPN 108 and BIO 139). Minimum "C" grade). Prerequisite or Corequisite: ((NPN 125 and NPN 201). If prerequisite, a grade of "C" or greater must be achieved). Lecture: 2 credits (30 contact hours). Laboratory/Clinical: 1 credit (45 contact hours).

Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 200  (5 credit hours)  
Med Surg I  

Applies the nursing process, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and core components of nursing practice to selected patients experiencing actual or potential alterations in health emphasizing the concepts of elimination, coordination, cardiac function, and metabolism. Strengthens the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Or Consent of PN Coordinator. Lecture: 3 credits (45 contact hours). Lab/Clinical: 2 credits (90 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: NPN 125 and NPN 116 and NPN 135 and NPN 201 with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 201  (3 credit hours)  
Child Bearing Family  

Focuses on the application of the core components of nursing practice to include childbearing patients and their families, concepts related to the newborn, and women's reproductive health issues. Utilizes the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Or Consent of PN Coordinator. Pre-requisite Or Pathway 3: NPN 106 and NPN 107 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) with a grade of "C" or better in each course. Lecture: 2.0 credits (30 contact hours). Lab: 1.0 credit (45 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Pathway 1: NPN 100 and NPN 105 and NPN 114 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Co-requisite: Pathway 2: NPN 101 and NPN 112 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and (AHS 120 or AHS 115 or CLA 131 or OST 103) and NPN 125 and NPN 135 and NPN 202 and (ENG 101 or COM 181 or COM 252) with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 202  (6 credit hours)  
Med-Surg I Alterations  

Applies nursing process across the lifespan to common health deviations related to metabolic dysfunctions, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, cardiovascular dysfunctions, and cellular deviations. Integrates the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Lecture: 4 credits (60 contact hours). Lab/Clinical 2.0 credits (90 contact hours)

Pre-requisite: NPN 101 and NPN 112 and (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and (AHS 115 or AHS 120 or CLA 131 or OST 103) with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Pre- or co-requisite: NPN 135 with a grade of "C" or better.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 203  (6 credit hours)  
Medical Surgical Nursing I  

Applies the nursing process, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and core components of nursing practice to selected patients experiencing actual or potential alterations in health emphasizing the concepts of oxygenation, nutrition and metabolism, fluid & electrolytes, acid/base balance, and cellular deviations. Strengthens the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN).

Pre-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and NPN 106 and NPN 108 and NPN 125 with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 204  (6 credit hours)  
Medical Surgical Nursing II  

Applies nursing process and core components of nursing practice to selected patients experiencing actual or potential alterations in health emphasizing the concepts of circulation and perfusion, urinary elimination, coordination, neurological and perception, and multi-system failure. Strengthens the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Lecture: 4 credits (60 contact hours) Lab/Clinical: 2 credits (90 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: (BIO 135 or BIO 139) and NPN 106 and NPN 108 and NPN 125 with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 205  (5 credit hours)  
Med Surg II  

Applies nursing process and core components of nursing practice to selected patients experiencing actual or potential alterations in health emphasizing the concepts of cellular deviation, fluid and electrolytes, neurological and perception, and multi-system failure. Strengthens the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Lecture: 3.0 credits (45 contact hours); Lab/Clinical: 2.0 credits (90 contact hours/45:1 ratio).

Pre-requisite: NPN 200 with a grade of "C" or better.
Attributes: Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 206  (6 credit hours)  
Med-Surg II Alterations  

Applies nursing process across the lifespan to complex health issues related to multi-system failure, neurological disorders, coordination dysfunctions, and elimination problems. Integrates the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Lecture: 4.0 credits (60 contact hours). Lab/Clinical: 2.0 credits (90 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: NPN 202 with a grade of "C" or better.
Pre- or co-requisite: NPN 201 with a grade of "C" or better.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 208  (10 credit hours)  
Nursing Care II  

Applies nursing process to selected child/adult clients experiencing common health deviations related to metabolic dysfunctions, complex cardiovascular dysfunctions, cellular deviations and complex health issues related to multi-system failure, neurological disorders, coordination dysfunctions, and elimination problems that interfere with activities of daily. Prerequisite: BIO 137, BIO 139, NPN 106, NPN 108, and NPN 125 with a grade of "C" or greater. Pre-requisite or Lecture: 6 credits (90 contact hours). Laboratory: 4 credits (180 contact hours).

Co-requisite: NPN 140 and NPN 201 with a grade of "C" or better.
Attributes: Course Also Offered in Modules
Components: CLN: Clinical, LAB: Laboratory, LEC: Lecture
NPN 210  (4 credit hours)  
Clinical Practicum  

Integrates the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) to provide direct care of clients in an integrated practicum experience. Provides the student the opportunity to incorporate theoretical concepts learned throughout the program in a concentrated clinical experience of direct patient care in a healthcare facility or healthcare organization. NPN 210 is the capstone course focusing on role transition and must be successfully completed in the final semester of the practical nursing program. (201 KAR 20: 320). Pathway 2: NPN 201 and NPN 206 with a grade of "C" or better in each course. Or consent of PN coordinator. Lecture: 1.0 credit (15 contact hours); Practicum: 3.0 credits (45:1 ratio/ 135 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Pathway 1: NPN 205 with a grade of "C" or better.
Pre- or co-requisite: Pathway 3: NPN 204 and NPN 225 with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Digital Literacy, Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: LEC: Lecture, PCM: Practicum
NPN 215  (1 credit hours)  
Nursing Trends & Issues  

Prepares the student for the role and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse. Explores specific state regulations and statutes that define the license practical nurse scope of practice. Analyzes the role transition from student to graduate practice with focus on professionalism and the employment process. Integrates the four competencies of practical nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Pathway 2: NPN 125 and NPN 135 and NPN 202 with grade of "C" or better in each course. Lecture: 1.0 credit (15 contact hours).

Pre-requisite: Pathway 1: NPN 125 and NPN 116 and NPN 135 and NPN 201 with grade of "C" or better in each course.
Pre- or co-requisite: Pathway 2: NPN 201 and NPN 206 and NPN 210 with grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Digital Literacy, Course Also Offered in Modules, Technical
Components: CLN: Clinical, LEC: Lecture
NPN 225  (2 credit hours)  
Nursing Leadership and Management  

Prepares the student for the role of practical nurse and entry into practice, as well as focuses on the principles of management and leadership in the delivery of healthcare. An overview of leadership styles and management concepts assists the student in understanding legal and ethical implications of the role of professional nurse, cost effective care, quality improvement, and coordinating patient care. Includes content on seeking employment, conflict resolution, team building, delegation, time management, and disaster planning. Validates the four competencies of nursing practice including human flourishing, nursing judgment, professional identity, and spirit of inquiry and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). Lecture: 2 credits (30 contact hours).

Pre- or co-requisite: NPN 203 and NPN 204 and NPN 201 with a grade of "C" or better in each course.
Attributes: Technical
Components: LEC: Lecture